pytz (2022.2.1)

Published 2022-08-26 17:51:49 +02:00 by guillem


pip install --index-url  pytz

About this package

World timezone definitions, modern and historical

pytz - World Timezone Definitions for Python

:Author: Stuart Bishop


pytz brings the Olson tz database into Python. This library allows
accurate and cross platform timezone calculations using Python 2.4
or higher. It also solves the issue of ambiguous times at the end
of daylight saving time, which you can read more about in the Python
Library Reference (``datetime.tzinfo``).

Almost all of the Olson timezones are supported.

.. note::

    This library differs from the documented Python API for
    tzinfo implementations; if you want to create local wallclock
    times you need to use the ``localize()`` method documented in this
    document. In addition, if you perform date arithmetic on local
    times that cross DST boundaries, the result may be in an incorrect
    timezone (ie. subtract 1 minute from 2002-10-27 1:00 EST and you get
    2002-10-27 0:59 EST instead of the correct 2002-10-27 1:59 EDT). A
    ``normalize()`` method is provided to correct this. Unfortunately these
    issues cannot be resolved without modifying the Python datetime
    implementation (see PEP-431).


This package can either be installed using pip or from a tarball using the standard Python distutils.

If you are installing using pip, you don't need to download anything as the latest version will be downloaded for you from PyPI::

pip install pytz

If you are installing from a tarball, run the following command as an administrative user::

python install

pytz for Enterprise

Available as part of the Tidelift Subscription.

The maintainers of pytz and thousands of other packages are working with Tidelift to deliver commercial support and maintenance for the open source dependencies you use to build your applications. Save time, reduce risk, and improve code health, while paying the maintainers of the exact dependencies you use. `Learn more. <>`_.

Example & Usage

Localized times and date arithmetic

>>> from datetime import datetime, timedelta
>>> from pytz import timezone
>>> import pytz
>>> utc = pytz.utc
>>> eastern = timezone('US/Eastern')
>>> amsterdam = timezone('Europe/Amsterdam')
>>> fmt = '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %Z%z'

This library only supports two ways of building a localized time. The
first is to use the ``localize()`` method provided by the pytz library.
This is used to localize a naive datetime (datetime with no timezone

>>> loc_dt = eastern.localize(datetime(2002, 10, 27, 6, 0, 0))
>>> print(loc_dt.strftime(fmt))
2002-10-27 06:00:00 EST-0500

The second way of building a localized time is by converting an existing
localized time using the standard ``astimezone()`` method:

>>> ams_dt = loc_dt.astimezone(amsterdam)
>>> ams_dt.strftime(fmt)
'2002-10-27 12:00:00 CET+0100'

Unfortunately using the tzinfo argument of the standard datetime
constructors ''does not work'' with pytz for many timezones.

>>> datetime(2002, 10, 27, 12, 0, 0, tzinfo=amsterdam).strftime(fmt)  # /!\ Does not work this way!
'2002-10-27 12:00:00 LMT+0018'

It is safe for timezones without daylight saving transitions though, such
as UTC:

>>> datetime(2002, 10, 27, 12, 0, 0, tzinfo=pytz.utc).strftime(fmt)  # /!\ Not recommended except for UTC
'2002-10-27 12:00:00 UTC+0000'

The preferred way of dealing with times is to always work in UTC,
converting to localtime only when generating output to be read
by humans.

>>> utc_dt = datetime(2002, 10, 27, 6, 0, 0, tzinfo=utc)
>>> loc_dt = utc_dt.astimezone(eastern)
>>> loc_dt.strftime(fmt)
'2002-10-27 01:00:00 EST-0500'

This library also allows you to do date arithmetic using local
times, although it is more complicated than working in UTC as you
need to use the ``normalize()`` method to handle daylight saving time
and other timezone transitions. In this example, ``loc_dt`` is set
to the instant when daylight saving time ends in the US/Eastern

>>> before = loc_dt - timedelta(minutes=10)
>>> before.strftime(fmt)
'2002-10-27 00:50:00 EST-0500'
>>> eastern.normalize(before).strftime(fmt)
'2002-10-27 01:50:00 EDT-0400'
>>> after = eastern.normalize(before + timedelta(minutes=20))
>>> after.strftime(fmt)
'2002-10-27 01:10:00 EST-0500'

Creating local times is also tricky, and the reason why working with
local times is not recommended. Unfortunately, you cannot just pass
a ``tzinfo`` argument when constructing a datetime (see the next
section for more details)

>>> dt = datetime(2002, 10, 27, 1, 30, 0)
>>> dt1 = eastern.localize(dt, is_dst=True)
>>> dt1.strftime(fmt)
'2002-10-27 01:30:00 EDT-0400'
>>> dt2 = eastern.localize(dt, is_dst=False)
>>> dt2.strftime(fmt)
'2002-10-27 01:30:00 EST-0500'

Converting between timezones is more easily done, using the
standard astimezone method.

>>> utc_dt = utc.localize(datetime.utcfromtimestamp(1143408899))
>>> utc_dt.strftime(fmt)
'2006-03-26 21:34:59 UTC+0000'
>>> au_tz = timezone('Australia/Sydney')
>>> au_dt = utc_dt.astimezone(au_tz)
>>> au_dt.strftime(fmt)
'2006-03-27 08:34:59 AEDT+1100'
>>> utc_dt2 = au_dt.astimezone(utc)
>>> utc_dt2.strftime(fmt)
'2006-03-26 21:34:59 UTC+0000'
>>> utc_dt == utc_dt2

You can take shortcuts when dealing with the UTC side of timezone
conversions. ``normalize()`` and ``localize()`` are not really
necessary when there are no daylight saving time transitions to
deal with.

>>> utc_dt = datetime.utcfromtimestamp(1143408899).replace(tzinfo=utc)
>>> utc_dt.strftime(fmt)
'2006-03-26 21:34:59 UTC+0000'
>>> au_tz = timezone('Australia/Sydney')
>>> au_dt = au_tz.normalize(utc_dt.astimezone(au_tz))
>>> au_dt.strftime(fmt)
'2006-03-27 08:34:59 AEDT+1100'
>>> utc_dt2 = au_dt.astimezone(utc)
>>> utc_dt2.strftime(fmt)
'2006-03-26 21:34:59 UTC+0000'

``tzinfo`` API

The ``tzinfo`` instances returned by the ``timezone()`` function have
been extended to cope with ambiguous times by adding an ``is_dst``
parameter to the ``utcoffset()``, ``dst()`` && ``tzname()`` methods.

>>> tz = timezone('America/St_Johns')

>>> normal = datetime(2009, 9, 1)
>>> ambiguous = datetime(2009, 10, 31, 23, 30)

The ``is_dst`` parameter is ignored for most timestamps. It is only used
during DST transition ambiguous periods to resolve that ambiguity.

>>> print(tz.utcoffset(normal, is_dst=True))
-1 day, 21:30:00
>>> print(tz.dst(normal, is_dst=True))
>>> tz.tzname(normal, is_dst=True)

>>> print(tz.utcoffset(ambiguous, is_dst=True))
-1 day, 21:30:00
>>> print(tz.dst(ambiguous, is_dst=True))
>>> tz.tzname(ambiguous, is_dst=True)

>>> print(tz.utcoffset(normal, is_dst=False))
-1 day, 21:30:00
>>> tz.dst(normal, is_dst=False).seconds
>>> tz.tzname(normal, is_dst=False)

>>> print(tz.utcoffset(ambiguous, is_dst=False))
-1 day, 20:30:00
>>> tz.dst(ambiguous, is_dst=False)
>>> tz.tzname(ambiguous, is_dst=False)

If ``is_dst`` is not specified, ambiguous timestamps will raise
an ``pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError`` exception.

>>> print(tz.utcoffset(normal))
-1 day, 21:30:00
>>> print(tz.dst(normal))
>>> tz.tzname(normal)

>>> import pytz.exceptions
>>> try:
...     tz.utcoffset(ambiguous)
... except pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError:
...     print('pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: %s' % ambiguous)
pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: 2009-10-31 23:30:00
>>> try:
...     tz.dst(ambiguous)
... except pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError:
...     print('pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: %s' % ambiguous)
pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: 2009-10-31 23:30:00
>>> try:
...     tz.tzname(ambiguous)
... except pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError:
...     print('pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: %s' % ambiguous)
pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: 2009-10-31 23:30:00

Problems with Localtime

The major problem we have to deal with is that certain datetimes may occur twice in a year. For example, in the US/Eastern timezone on the last Sunday morning in October, the following sequence happens:

- 01:00 EDT occurs
- 1 hour later, instead of 2:00am the clock is turned back 1 hour
  and 01:00 happens again (this time 01:00 EST)

In fact, every instant between 01:00 and 02:00 occurs twice. This means that if you try and create a time in the 'US/Eastern' timezone the standard datetime syntax, there is no way to specify if you meant before of after the end-of-daylight-saving-time transition. Using the pytz custom syntax, the best you can do is make an educated guess:

loc_dt = eastern.localize(datetime(2002, 10, 27, 1, 30, 00)) loc_dt.strftime(fmt) '2002-10-27 01:30:00 EST-0500'

As you can see, the system has chosen one for you and there is a 50% chance of it being out by one hour. For some applications, this does not matter. However, if you are trying to schedule meetings with people in different timezones or analyze log files it is not acceptable.

The best and simplest solution is to stick with using UTC. The pytz package encourages using UTC for internal timezone representation by including a special UTC implementation based on the standard Python reference implementation in the Python documentation.

The UTC timezone unpickles to be the same instance, and pickles to a smaller size than other pytz tzinfo instances. The UTC implementation can be obtained as pytz.utc, pytz.UTC, or pytz.timezone('UTC').

import pickle, pytz dt = datetime(2005, 3, 1, 14, 13, 21, tzinfo=utc) naive = dt.replace(tzinfo=None) p = pickle.dumps(dt, 1) naive_p = pickle.dumps(naive, 1) len(p) - len(naive_p) 17 new = pickle.loads(p) new == dt True new is dt False new.tzinfo is dt.tzinfo True pytz.utc is pytz.UTC is pytz.timezone('UTC') True

Note that some other timezones are commonly thought of as the same (GMT, Greenwich, Universal, etc.). The definition of UTC is distinct from these other timezones, and they are not equivalent. For this reason, they will not compare the same in Python.

utc == pytz.timezone('GMT') False

See the section What is UTC_, below.

If you insist on working with local times, this library provides a facility for constructing them unambiguously:

loc_dt = datetime(2002, 10, 27, 1, 30, 00) est_dt = eastern.localize(loc_dt, is_dst=True) edt_dt = eastern.localize(loc_dt, is_dst=False) print(est_dt.strftime(fmt) + ' / ' + edt_dt.strftime(fmt)) 2002-10-27 01:30:00 EDT-0400 / 2002-10-27 01:30:00 EST-0500

If you pass None as the is_dst flag to localize(), pytz will refuse to guess and raise exceptions if you try to build ambiguous or non-existent times.

For example, 1:30am on 27th Oct 2002 happened twice in the US/Eastern timezone when the clocks where put back at the end of Daylight Saving Time:

dt = datetime(2002, 10, 27, 1, 30, 00) try: ... eastern.localize(dt, is_dst=None) ... except pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: ... print('pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: %s' % dt) pytz.exceptions.AmbiguousTimeError: 2002-10-27 01:30:00

Similarly, 2:30am on 7th April 2002 never happened at all in the US/Eastern timezone, as the clocks where put forward at 2:00am skipping the entire hour:

dt = datetime(2002, 4, 7, 2, 30, 00) try: ... eastern.localize(dt, is_dst=None) ... except pytz.exceptions.NonExistentTimeError: ... print('pytz.exceptions.NonExistentTimeError: %s' % dt) pytz.exceptions.NonExistentTimeError: 2002-04-07 02:30:00

Both of these exceptions share a common base class to make error handling easier:

isinstance(pytz.AmbiguousTimeError(), pytz.InvalidTimeError) True isinstance(pytz.NonExistentTimeError(), pytz.InvalidTimeError) True

A special case is where countries change their timezone definitions with no daylight savings time switch. For example, in 1915 Warsaw switched from Warsaw time to Central European time with no daylight savings transition. So at the stroke of midnight on August 5th 1915 the clocks were wound back 24 minutes creating an ambiguous time period that cannot be specified without referring to the timezone abbreviation or the actual UTC offset. In this case midnight happened twice, neither time during a daylight saving time period. pytz handles this transition by treating the ambiguous period before the switch as daylight savings time, and the ambiguous period after as standard time.

warsaw = pytz.timezone('Europe/Warsaw') amb_dt1 = warsaw.localize(datetime(1915, 8, 4, 23, 59, 59), is_dst=True) amb_dt1.strftime(fmt) '1915-08-04 23:59:59 WMT+0124' amb_dt2 = warsaw.localize(datetime(1915, 8, 4, 23, 59, 59), is_dst=False) amb_dt2.strftime(fmt) '1915-08-04 23:59:59 CET+0100' switch_dt = warsaw.localize(datetime(1915, 8, 5, 00, 00, 00), is_dst=False) switch_dt.strftime(fmt) '1915-08-05 00:00:00 CET+0100' str(switch_dt - amb_dt1) '0:24:01' str(switch_dt - amb_dt2) '0:00:01'

The best way of creating a time during an ambiguous time period is by converting from another timezone such as UTC:

utc_dt = datetime(1915, 8, 4, 22, 36, tzinfo=pytz.utc) utc_dt.astimezone(warsaw).strftime(fmt) '1915-08-04 23:36:00 CET+0100'

The standard Python way of handling all these ambiguities is not to handle them, such as demonstrated in this example using the US/Eastern timezone definition from the Python documentation (Note that this implementation only works for dates between 1987 and 2006 - it is included for tests only!):

from pytz.reference import Eastern # pytz.reference only for tests dt = datetime(2002, 10, 27, 0, 30, tzinfo=Eastern) str(dt) '2002-10-27 00:30:00-04:00' str(dt + timedelta(hours=1)) '2002-10-27 01:30:00-05:00' str(dt + timedelta(hours=2)) '2002-10-27 02:30:00-05:00' str(dt + timedelta(hours=3)) '2002-10-27 03:30:00-05:00'

Notice the first two results? At first glance you might think they are correct, but taking the UTC offset into account you find that they are actually two hours appart instead of the 1 hour we asked for.

from pytz.reference import UTC # pytz.reference only for tests str(dt.astimezone(UTC)) '2002-10-27 04:30:00+00:00' str((dt + timedelta(hours=1)).astimezone(UTC)) '2002-10-27 06:30:00+00:00'

Country Information

A mechanism is provided to access the timezones commonly in use
for a particular country, looked up using the ISO 3166 country code.
It returns a list of strings that can be used to retrieve the relevant
tzinfo instance using ``pytz.timezone()``:

>>> print(' '.join(pytz.country_timezones['nz']))
Pacific/Auckland Pacific/Chatham

The Olson database comes with a ISO 3166 country code to English country
name mapping that pytz exposes as a dictionary:

>>> print(pytz.country_names['nz'])
New Zealand

What is UTC

'UTC' is `Coordinated Universal Time`_. It is a successor to, but distinct
from, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) and the various definitions of Universal
Time. UTC is now the worldwide standard for regulating clocks and time

All other timezones are defined relative to UTC, and include offsets like
UTC+0800 - hours to add or subtract from UTC to derive the local time. No
daylight saving time occurs in UTC, making it a useful timezone to perform
date arithmetic without worrying about the confusion and ambiguities caused
by daylight saving time transitions, your country changing its timezone, or
mobile computers that roam through multiple timezones.

..  _Coordinated Universal Time:


There are two lists of timezones provided.

``all_timezones`` is the exhaustive list of the timezone names that can
be used.

>>> from pytz import all_timezones
>>> len(all_timezones) >= 500
>>> 'Etc/Greenwich' in all_timezones

``common_timezones`` is a list of useful, current timezones. It doesn't
contain deprecated zones or historical zones, except for a few I've
deemed in common usage, such as US/Eastern (open a bug report if you
think other timezones are deserving of being included here). It is also
a sequence of strings.

>>> from pytz import common_timezones
>>> len(common_timezones) < len(all_timezones)
>>> 'Etc/Greenwich' in common_timezones
>>> 'Australia/Melbourne' in common_timezones
>>> 'US/Eastern' in common_timezones
>>> 'Canada/Eastern' in common_timezones
>>> 'Australia/Yancowinna' in all_timezones
>>> 'Australia/Yancowinna' in common_timezones

Both ``common_timezones`` and ``all_timezones`` are alphabetically

>>> common_timezones_dupe = common_timezones[:]
>>> common_timezones_dupe.sort()
>>> common_timezones == common_timezones_dupe
>>> all_timezones_dupe = all_timezones[:]
>>> all_timezones_dupe.sort()
>>> all_timezones == all_timezones_dupe

``all_timezones`` and ``common_timezones`` are also available as sets.

>>> from pytz import all_timezones_set, common_timezones_set
>>> 'US/Eastern' in all_timezones_set
>>> 'US/Eastern' in common_timezones_set
>>> 'Australia/Victoria' in common_timezones_set

You can also retrieve lists of timezones used by particular countries
using the ``country_timezones()`` function. It requires an ISO-3166
two letter country code.

>>> from pytz import country_timezones
>>> print(' '.join(country_timezones('ch')))
>>> print(' '.join(country_timezones('CH')))

Internationalization - i18n/l10n

Pytz is an interface to the IANA database, which uses ASCII names. The Unicode Consortium's Unicode Locales (CLDR) <>_ project provides translations. Thomas Khyn's l18n <>_ package can be used to access these translations from Python.


MIT license.

This code is also available as part of Zope 3 under the Zope Public
License,  Version 2.1 (ZPL).

I'm happy to relicense this code if necessary for inclusion in other
open source projects.

Latest Versions

This package will be updated after releases of the Olson timezone database. The latest version can be downloaded from the Python Package Index <>_. The code that is used to generate this distribution is hosted on and available using git::

git clone

A mirror on github is also available at

Announcements of new releases are made on Launchpad <>, and the Atom feed <> hosted there.

Bugs, Feature Requests & Patches

Bugs can be reported using `Launchpad Bugs <>`_.

Security Issues

Reports about security issues can be made via `Tidelift <>`_.

Issues & Limitations

- Offsets from UTC are rounded to the nearest whole minute, so timezones
  such as Europe/Amsterdam pre 1937 will be up to 30 seconds out. This
  is a limitation of the Python datetime library.

- If you think a timezone definition is incorrect, I probably can't fix
  it. pytz is a direct translation of the Olson timezone database, and
  changes to the timezone definitions need to be made to this source.
  If you find errors they should be reported to the time zone mailing
  list, linked from

Further Reading

More info than you want to know about timezones:


Stuart Bishop <>

2022-08-26 17:51:49 +02:00
Stuart Bishop
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